Medical examination of a doctor specialized in physical therapy

Medical examination of a doctor specialized in physical therapy

Medical examination of a doctor, specialized in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R), includes regular check-up and special part of the examination.

During the regular check-up, the doctor takes the insight in the medical history of a patient, i.e. following information: general discomfort, detailed information about the beginning and development of the current disease, previous disease and surgery, the medical history of a family and psychosocial medical history.

Special medical examination includes assessing the functional condition of the patient, so-called status functionalis, when a doctor assesses:

  • posture (attitude, position of the body),
  • active and passive mobility of the spine and all joints,
  • tone, muscular trophiccondition and muscle strength according to MMT (Manual Muscle Testing),
  • reflex activity,
  • sensitivity,
  • anthropometric measurements (the size, shape and composition of the human body),
  • the condition of peripheral circulation,
  • activities of daily livingtest (ADLs/activities of daily living).

If required, further diagnostic tests such as laboratory tests (urine and blood) are carried out in addition to clinical examination:

  • X-ray,
  • CT scan (computerized tomography scan), i.e. scanner,
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging),
  • EDg (electromyoneurography ─ EMNG of upper andlower extremities),
  • ultrasound of soft tissues and joints,
  • Doppler ultrasound exam of blood vessels of the neck, upper and lower extremities.

If necessary, the diagnosis is made by a team, consulting doctors specialized in other fields of medicine. Once a diagnosis is made, individual therapy plan is created, optimized for each patient that includes the use of medications, application of physical therapy and kinesiotherapy.

Medical examination of a doctor sub-specialized in rheumatology

Medical examination of a doctor sub-specialized in rheumatology

Rheumatic diseases are a collection of various diseases whose common symptoms are: inflammation, swelling and pain in the joints, muscles, tendons, as well as reduced mobility. There is no drug that treats the cause of the disease, but with the use of drugs, balanced diet, particular physical activity and relaxation techniques, the disease can be kept under control, what will eventually lead to the improvement of life quality. Rheumatology is a sub-specialty of internal medicine involved in rheumatic diseases and the treatment of them.

Rheumatic diseases are on the rise, affecting not only adults, but youth as well. They are progressive in their course, what eventually causes major damage to the organs responsible for the movement of the human body. They can lead to physical disability and significantly affect the working capacity and quality of life. The cause and mechanism of emergence of rheumatic diseases is generally obscure and a unique classification of these diseases does not exist.

The most common diseases are:

  • osteoarthritis,
  • rheumatoid arthritis,
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),
  • gout,
  • fibromyalgia,
  • scleroderma (hard skin).

In the majority of cases it is necessary to do the following:

  • specialist internal rheumatologist examination,
  • analysis of radiological imaging including the bone density DEXA scan,
  • ultrasound examination of muscles, tendons, cysts and other rheumatic changes,
  • setting guidelines for further effect and procedures for the corresponding disease.

The most common symptoms of rheumatic diseases are: bone pain, joint and muscle pain, back pain, fever, tiredness and fatigue, worsening of condition due to low temperatures and changes in weather.

EMNG Analysis

EMNG Analysis

EMNG analysis is used in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases and is an area of neuropsychology that analyzes the electrical recording of muscular activity, radicular nerves, nerve plexus and peripheral nerves.

Electromyography (EMG) is used for registering the electric potential generated by muscle fiber in the state of resting and contraction. EMG is combined with electroneurography (ENG) that is used to examine the maximum motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity.

The examination is performed with the help of needle or surface electrodes, devices for amplification, transmission and recording of signals.

Indications for EMNG are:

  • the differentiation between neurogenic and myogenic paralysis and atrophy,
  • myotonia, miotonic dystrophy,
  • display of the early stages of denervation,
  • the differentiation between psychogenic and neurogenic paralysis,
  • diagnosis of generalized neural defects,
  • assessment of degree development of the disease after suffering from neurogenic defects.



Foot is the organ of support and movement and therefore it is very important to preserve its function, i.e. to enable its function in case of deformation or injury in order to make it possible for a person to move, what will eventually lead to the improvement in the quality of life.


Pedobarography is the electronic measuring of the foot pressure and pedobarographic analysis indicates the distribution of plantar pressure. It is based on the finding of electronic sensors that are installed in specific platforms for walking.

The platform itself is directly connected to a computer system programmed for two-dimensional or three-dimensional analysis of the foot function while walking and standing. After diagnostic procedures and data obtained by EMED system, digitalization of the patient’s footprint is transferred in the form of 3D graphics, whereas the possibility of creating three-dimensional orthopedic insoles, individually for each patient, is implemented through the use of CAD/CAM system.

After the orthopedic insole is designed by a doctor, the obtained data are sent to the robot machine that rapidly produces the orthopedic insole made from a specific type of material.

The materials are of a superior quality and are selected according to the needs and characteristics of the individual.

pedobarografija1The basic functions of the orthopedic insole are:

  • neutralization of the foot in biomechanical proper position,
  • stabilization of the foot in shoes,
  • amortization during movement,
  • foot adaptation to shoes and thereby surface along which we are moving.

Orthopedic insoles have corrective, therapeutic and preventive role. Computer diagnostic of the foot and the creation of custom orthopedic insoles should be carried out among:

  • children with deformities of the foot (flat feet, hollow foot…),
  • people who have frequent pain in feet, knees and back,
  • people who have plantar fasciitis, i.e. spina calcanei,
  • stopalaathletes who use individual orthopedic insoles in order to reduce the pressure on the cartilage, tendons and ligaments, and thus prevent the occurrence of injuries,
  • people engaged in certain types of occupations that demand long standing on their feet (for example, dentists, hairdressers, tradesmen, workers who are operating with machines),
  • in the case when the length of lower extremities, that is often different,  needs to be equaled.

Forget about fatigue and pain while using our orthopedic insoles…Walk comfortably!

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